What are the XRD equipment details for my thesis or paper
Characterization of ZnO thin films grown by chemical bath … 51 (3) A comparison of XRD data for standard hexagonal ZnO with the XRD data of as-grown and
Where, , and are the atomic scattering factors of barium, titanium and oxygen, respectively. Since the XRD intensity is proportional to square of the structure factor, one can prove that the (002) intensity should be significantly higher than that of (001). This is seen in the XRD patterns of ceramic as well as in the pattern of wet-chemically prepared nano-sized sample.
The TEM image (fig. 4) shows an assembly of quasi-spherical BaTiO3 nano-particles which appears to be partially agglomerated owing to the absence of surface stabilizing agent or ligands. The particle found through TEM is 50 nm which is in good agreement with the particle size found from the XRD using the Scherer’s formula. The dielectric constant (ε) was determined through Agilent made Precision LCR meter at 300 K and frequency of 1 kHz was 2300. The frequency dependence exhibited the universal response. The TGA-DSC showed initial weight loss within the temperature range 500C to 1500C due to removal of water content and hydroxyl ions and the prominent weight loss in the temperature range 5000C to 6500C corresponds to removal of chloride impurities which is generally accepted mechanism of decomposition for BaTiO3 specimen prepared by co-precipitation or hydrothermal route using chlorides of Barium and titanium.
X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) - Techniques
Each of the gels had been disrupted from being smooth to becoming a ridged powder and there had been enough power to cause a series of small detonations in the stabilised sample or possibly the scan time had been too long, causing the gel to be shaken by the vibrations. from the XRD.Clay mineral crystallites have a small size and layered structure, therefore XRD pattern has a very small intensity. Polytype characterizing unbasal peaks have considerably lower intensity than basal peaks have. The aim of these studies is to achieve XRPD patterns of unoriented samples with hight resolution of unbasal reflexes. For these studies we used clay samples from Latvia with different genesis and various illite polytypes content. The samples were separated into 2 and 1 micron fractions, using different kind and different concentration of dispersants, [Na(PO3)]6 and NH4OH. Than each sample was tested either heated at 550oC, either saturated with glycol.(Excerpt) Orthopedic and dental implants consisting of a metallic substrate plasma-spray coated with hydroxylapatite (HA) are currently used in reconstructive surgery. The crystalline phases present in the calcium phosphate ceramic and the degree of crystallinity must be controlled for medical applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is routinely employed to characterize the phase composition and percent crystallinity in both biological and sintered HA. However, application of the same XRD methods to plasma-sprayed coatings is complicated by the potential presence of several crystalline contaminant phases and an amorphous component.The XRD for layers grown for the series of samples with different power applied for three independent targets are presented in Fig. 1. One can notice that the shape of the diffraction pattern is changing depending on the applied power. However, only in case of samples marked as C113 and C117 the peak (small and sharp and high and broad, respectively) which can be related to Ti3SiC2 phase was detected.